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One of the fields that differentiates the Śląskie Voivodeship, not only in Poland but also worldwide, is medicine, cardiosurgery and oncology in particular.

One of the areas in which the Silesian Voivodeship distinguishes itself on not only the national, but also the international scale, is medicine, especially cardio-surgery and oncology. Regional hospitals specialising in these fields of medicine are high in the national rankings: CARDIO-SURGERY - the Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases (Zabrze), the Upper Silesian Medical Centre, the Clinic of Cardiology (Katowice); ONCOLOGY - the Centre for Oncology, the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute (Gliwice), the Clinic for Haematology and Transplantology (Katowice); BURNS - the Centre for Burns Treatment (Siemianowice Śląskie).

The Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases in Zabrze - one of Poland's most important centres for heart transplantation is merits special emphasise. Each year complicated cardiologic and transplantation operations are carried out there. The Zabrze hospital is among the best, as far as operations on the aortic aneurysm are concerned. Together with a few other Polish centres, the Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases is one of the European leaders in the field of cardio-surgery. More and more frequently, doctors from Zabrze perform life-saving simultaneous transplantations of two organs, which is a very rare practice.

Another clinic specialising in cardio-surgery is the Clinic No. 1 in Katowice Ochojec. It is one of the best in the world in the field of minimally-invasive operations and the application of modern technologies. This clinic operates on the premises of the Independent State Clinical Hospital No. 7 of the Medical University of Silesia, which was rated first in the Newsweek ranking as the best Polish hospital. For two years, doctors from the hospital in Katowice Ochojec have been performing operations on the heart with no necessity to cut the chest, thanks to the application of the Ezop robot. The patients who do not have to undergo procedures performed by cardio-surgeons are treated in one of the three modern cardiologic clinics.

Oncology is another medical specialisation, apart from cardio-surgery, characteristic for the Silesian Voivodeship. The Centre for Oncology - the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Gliwice - Is currently the most modern hospital in Poland. Its equipment is fully computerised.

On the other hand, the Clinic for Haematology and Marrow Transplantation in Katowice is a centre for marrow transplantation, occupying a leading position in Europe. It is here where for the first time in Poland marrow transplantation from a foreign donor was performed, as well as marrow transplantation from a Polish non-relative. As the only one in Poland, the centre in Katowice has accreditation at the American Marrow Donor Registry.

Finally, the Centre for Burns Treatment in Siemianowice Śląskie is a Poland's leading centre for the treatment of burns injuries and their complications. The goals and tasks of the centre include, among other things, burns treatment, hyperbaric oxygenation (burns, post-injury burns, infections, inflammations, oedemas), and rehabilitation for post-burns complications.